Slawomir Bialas, Zbigniew Humienny, Krzysztof Kiszka:
VECTORIAL DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING – THE LIMITS OF USES
Paper presents the fundamental layouts of the vectorial dimensioning and tolerancing (VDT) emphasising that the VDT provides unambiguous mathematical representation of the geometrical product specifications, which is essential for application of computer aided design, manufacturing and measurement. The nominal and actual vectors of location as well as nominal and actual unit vectors of orientation for plain are presented. Paper analysis which functional requirements may be specified by the VDT whereas for which geometrical dimensioning and tolerancing based on ISO 1101, ISO 2698, ISO 8015 (PN-78/M-02137, PN-93/M-01123, PN-EN 20286-1) is more suitable. The prospect applications of the VDT as a general-purpose tool for exchange of geometrical data throughout the product life cycle are defined.
COORDINATE METROLOGY – A SHORT LITERATURE STUDY, BASED ON THE ISMQC SYMPOSIA PROCEEDINGS
The International Measurement Confederation (IMEKO) organise a lot of events dealing with the topical problems of measurement technique and instrumentation. The IMEKO TC 14 Measurement of geometrical quantities organised (in the years 1984-95) five ISMQC Symposia, containing the topics of Coordinate Metrology (CM).
In this paper we have studied and analysed the contributions from the field of CM, based on the five ISMQC Symposia Proceedings. The aim of this analysis is to demonstrate, how the theoretical and practical knowledge, related to CM are presented. Concluding part of this study depicts the motivation for similar analyses, they could be made for other fields of Dimensional Metrology.
Jan Chajda, Miroslaw Grzelka:
THE POSSIBILITES OF COMPLEX ANALYSIS OF GEARS BY MEANS COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINE
In the article, the possibilities of analysis of such parameters of gear as a cinematic and dynamic deviation, are presented. These parameters are calculated on a basis of measurement of three independent deviations. The programme uses the results of measurement for digital simulation of complex gear parameters.
METROLOGICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR COMPOSITE HOBS
The paper discusses the problems of attaining the accuracy of composite hobs in metrological aspect. A method is given for the optimisation of the selected tool angular parameter that has a substantial effect on the certainty of measurement results
Tadeusz Iglantowicz, Marek Migacz:
INFLUENSE OF DIMENSION-SHAPE ACCURACY ON MEASUREMENT OF SURFACE LOCATION ERRORS
Exceeding in manufacturing practice some of accuracy parameters as for example roughness, shape errors that are imposed by designer can influence significantly the accuracy of measurement of errors of relative location of machine parts location e.g. perpendicularity, coaxiality errors. Coordinate machines equipped with impulse heads collecting small nembers of measurement points are especially sensitive to exceeding conditions mentioned above. In this paper attention is drawn to the influence of roughness and shape errors on accuracy of determination of relative location errors using coordinate methods.
Wladyslaw Jakubiec, Marcin Starczak:
COORDINATE MEASURING TECHNIQUE VS VECTORIAL TOLERANCING
The rules obliging in vectorial tolerancing from the point of view of their accordance with present state of coordinate measuring technique were analysed. The measuring strategy arrising from vectorial tolerancing was compared with ones, the most frequently used in traditional tolerancing. The changes necessary to implement in Quindos system and measuring programme to obtain the full possibilities of vectorial tolerancing are shown. Thanks to Quindos measuring system v. 3.2 implemented on measuring machine (MicroXcel PFx 765 Leitz-Brown&Sharpe) the measurements were carried out.
BASIC OF PASCAL WORM COORDINATE MEASUREMENTS
The paper presents basic rules of coordinate measurements of Pascal warms. The main area of interest is a computation procedure witch considerable affects the measurements result and its accuracy. Different methods of determining a mean profile were considered. Effects of certain mathematical simplifications in profile evaluation on obtained parameters of profile function are shown in graphical form.
Andrzej Koc, Tadeusz Salacinski:
EQUIDISTANT TOOTH FLANK BEVEL GEAR EQUATIONS FOR CO-ORDINATE MEASURING
The theory of bevel gear is still little known compared with the theory of cylindrical gear. Since this paper deals with the accurate set of equations, it may eliminate the approximate solutions and the "prove and error" methods while manufacturing and while measuring a bevel gear tooth flank. Straight teeth and Gleason Formate Tilt teeth have been taken into account in the paper.
Marek Kowalski, Jerzy Sladek, Robert Rakoczy:
DESCRIPTION OF A VIRTUAL COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINE
The paper presents assumptions, structure and a brief description of a VCMM. Basic procedures applied for the VCMM operation are given. Main menu and a range of application of the VCMM are presented.
Werner Lotze, Bernd Georgie:
FORM TESTING BY MEANS OF THE UNIVERSAL CMM SCANMAX
ScanMax is a new manually operated coordinate measuring machine (CMM) for quality inspection in shop floor environment. It is based on the scanning principle for workpiece touching and linked with a powerful computer system and the software package ScanWare for data evaluation. The scanning method used for workpiece testing gives everytimes the full geometric profile with about 1000 points per feature. Thus besides of size and position the form departure and the profile of any geometric element can be analysed too. Therefore the software package ScanWare contains powerful features and algorithms for form departure analysis of any regular geometric elements such as straightness, roundness, plane, cylinder, cone and sphere as well as for free form profiles in plane. The form departure analysis considers the international standards and definitions (e.g. in ISO 1101) such as best fit approximation according to Tschebyshev, low pass filtering by means of the phase corrected Gaussian profile filter as well as parallel and circular profile projection for profile testing in defined cross sections. The paper describes the principle of measurement and evaluation and gives an overview by means of various examples from industry. It shows the wide range application field of the new ScanMax for universal form testing in manufacturing engineering.
Jan Malinowski, Wladyslaw Jakubiec, Aleksander Tytyk:
THE ROLE OF COORDINATE MEASURING TECHNIQUE IN QUALITY SYSTEMS
The paper presents the quality systems requirements from the point of view of coordinate measuring technique. The synonymous of requirements in design as well as problems with evaluation measuring uncertainty were described. The requirements for modern measuring machines are presented.
COMPUTER-AIDED STRATEGY DESIGN OF A CO-ORDINATE MEASUREMENTS
The subject of the paper are questions concerning computer-aided manufacturing planning, especially problems of strategy design for a co-ordinate measurements strategy. An idea of use for this purpose a CAD systems is briefly presented. Structure of graphical modelling system for CMMs is described. An example of use of this system for planning a measurements strategy of fixed headstock body of lathe is shown.
Herbert P. Osanna, Gordan Starcevic, M. Numan Durakbasa:
THE PROBLEMATICS OF THE REMOVAL OF OUTLIERS IN COORDINATE MEASUREMENT DATA
This paper is an attempt to solve the problem to remove outliers in measurement data from coordinate measurements. The proposed system works on the basis of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and it should be able after a learning phase to evaluate and analyse data of series of measurements without recognised outliers. This could be a further step in the direction of carrying out intelligent coordinate measurements
Stanislaw Plonka, Marcin Starczak:
COORDINATE MEASUREMENTS OF CYLINDER LINERS
The paper presents the way of macrostructure evaluation of cylinder liners after different kind of finishing of surface by means of coordinate measurements.
Wojciech Plowucha, Marcin Starczak:
SPC TECHNIQUES IN COORDINATE MEASUREMENTS
The paper presents the simplified method of measuring uncertainty evaluation. An example of housing's measurements is presented. Another examples of statistical evaluation of measurements results are also described.
SOME EVALUATION PROBLEMS OF THE GEOMETRICAL ERRORS OF COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINES
Review of existing methods of Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) geometrical errors' evaluation is presented. The similarity and differences of the methods are indicated. Experimental research has been carried out to uncover significance of these differences. The results of research for chosen geometrical errors are presented. Especially differences in number of measuring points in various methods are underlined. Also, influence of the measurement procedure and result interpretation has been investigated.
Hagen Reissner, Wolfgang Riechmann:
RÉSEAU-CALIBRATION BY COMBINING CO-ORDINATE MEASUREMENT MACHINE (CMM) AND CCD-SENSOR
Today most practical co-ordinate technology utilises probing measurement sensors. Traditionally the line and grid plates that play an important role in many areas could not be measured using probing sensors. The line and cross structures can now however be measured very accurately if a coordinate measurement machine is equipped with a non-contact optoelectrical sensor. The following paper describes the use of combination of coordinate measurement machine and optoelectrical sensor to calibrate a réseau plate.
CERTAIN PROBLEMS OF A CMM APPLICATION FOR STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL (SPC)
The paper looks at some problems associated with applying CMMs for Statistical Process Control (SPC). Modern quality-oriented manufacturing requires that processes be constantly improved and maintained at a level which meets customer requirements (on target and with minimum variance). This led to SPC procedures being widely applied, especially in mass production. Meeting changing customer needs at minimum cost gave rise to Flexible Manufacturing Systems, Just in Time Manufacturing, etc. This means SPC will also be used in short run production. The focus will be therefore on flexible measuring systems able to adjust to this new environment, CMMs being the best choice. The paper's aim is to outlay main issues arising when considering applying CMMs for SPC.
Andrzej Ryniewicz, Marek Kowalski:
TEMPERATURE TESTING OF SELECTED UNITS OF A CMM
The paper presents measurements of temperature of certain units of a CMM and example results obtained. Factor affecting temperature distribution of a CMM body and an influence of external temperature on a CMM thermal state were analysed.
Konstanty Skalski, Krzysztof Kedzior, Ryszard Filipowski, Wojciech Swieszkowski, Jozef Zawora:
METHODOLOGY FOR MEASUREMENT OF THE HUMAN RADIAL BONE ELEMENTS USING COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINE
The principles for setting the measurement bases, determining measurement cross-section, selecting the measuring adapters, planning the measuring strategy and storing the measuring results in view to their export to CAD/CAM systems have been discussed in this paper. The presented principles have been formulated for the most simple types of coordinate measuring machines.
Konstanty Skalski, Wojciech Swieszkowski, Jozef Zawora, Ryszard Filipowski, Jan Cholewinski:
METHOD OF CORRECTING THE COORDINATE MEASUREMENT RESULTS ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE ELBOW JOINT BONE
The presented numerical programming of correcting the ball probe can be applied to an arbitrary system of the coordinate measuring machine for the purpose of the measurement automation of complex surfaces.
Andrzej Skorupa, Andrzej Tyka:
COORDINATE INSTRUMENTATION OF THE TESTING MACHINE
An attempt at the application of the elements of a coordinate measurement technique in the instrumentation of a testing machine for fatigue measurements has been presented. The limitations and problems connected with the construction and development of a measurement system in which the TVCCD camera and uni-axial system for a contact-free observation and measurement of the length of a slot of the fatigue crack are discussed. A solution of the concept of the electronic part of instrumentation is shown.
Marcin Starczak, Wojciech Plowucha, Wladyslaw Jakubiec:
MEASUREMENTS OF FREE SURFACES
The paper presents the problems in measurements of 3D forms with CMM using standard software. The following problems were analyzed: appropriate definition of workpiece coordinate system, probing in points as close as possible to nominal points, assure perpendicularity of probing direction to nominal surface, radius correction, filterring and fitting, evaluation of measurements results. Presented problems are illustrated with examples of measurements carried out on MicroXcel PFx 765 CMM with Quindos software. An additional use of AutoCAD software is also shown.
INSPECTION OF COMPLEX GEOMETRIES ON COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINES – THE OTHER WAY!
This contribution is providing some ideas, what range of complex geometry's such as gears can be measured on a CMM. Therefore, a basic comparison is done between the principle of dedicated gear checker versus a coordinate measuring machine. The benefit of the CMM – measuring strategy will be shown in detail for a straight bevel gear. These facts are leading to solutions and progress in production technology which have not been existed in the past.
Heinrich Schwenke, Eugen Trapet, Franz Waeldele:
CALIBRATION OF COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINES TO IMPROVE AND TO KNOW THE MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY
The true calibration of coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) is a relatively new issue as these measuring instruments are universal in use and traceability was difficult to establish so far. The substitution method, which uses calibrated masters that are similar to the objects to be measured, assures traceability by way of assessing task-specific errors and uncertainties; it has the potential to improve accuracy by task specific corrections. However, this method is not general. The Virtual CMM is a generally applicable method. It is based on a general type calibration (assessment of the errors of geometry of the CMM); from these and additional uncertainty contributions (assessed by measurements and estimations) the task-specific errors and uncertainties are calculated. After introducing to the causes of errors and uncertainties of CMM measurements, and how to reduce these influences, the two methods to achieve a true traceability are explained, including two examples
PROBLEMS OF ANALYSIS OF THE DOUBLE FLANK TESTING OF CYLINDRICAL GEARS
The paper discusses problems connected with elaboration of the measurement application of a device for the analysis of double flank testing of cylindrical gears in which the mechanical part and the software are used. The tool software Lab Windows, Matlab as well as a elements of the systems of canvassing of National Instruments measurement data have been applied. Illustrative measurement realizations and conclusions are presented.
Aleksander Tytyk, Wladyslaw Jakubiec:
SUPERVISING OF MEASURING MACHINES FOR GEARS
Very expensive and difficult for calibration standards of profile and lead are necessary for measuring machines inspection. The paper presents the design and calibration procedures of recommended standards designed and tested in Gears Research and Development Centre Redor.
Albert Weckenmann, Martin Knauer:
COMPARABILITY OF COORDINATE MEASUREMENTS
Non-comparability of measurement results, for example, from the inspection of incoming goods, is often the cause of a lack of trust between customers and suppliers, unnecessary discussion and sometimes even litigation. Coordinate measurement offers the measuring instrument operator numerous opportunities for influencing the result of measurement in almost any way. This especially concerns the specifications for performing and evaluating the measurement defined in the measuring strategy. Only if the measuring parameters are planned and documented in a useful way can correct and comparable measurement results be achieved.