In the Conference participated 64 participants, including 11 from abroad. Participants of the Conference representet Polish Universities (35) and Universities from abroad (10), manufacturers of measuring equipment (6), Research Institutes and Centres (3) and Polish industry (17). Participants from abroad came from Germany(6), Austria (1), Italy (1), Sweden (1), France (1) and Romania (2).
During conference 14 papers on plenary sesion were presented:
Moreover 32 papers in 2 sessions "Coordinate Measuring Technique" and "Micro- i macrogeometry of surface" were presented.
46 papers (39 in English and 7 in Polish) were published in Scientific Bulletin of University of Bielsko-Biala.
Marius Bulgaru, Lucia Ioana Bolboaca, Dan Popescu, Tudor Ioanoviciu
Designing and Using the Virtual Coordinate Measuring Machine in Education
Summary: The paper presents some applications of the Virtual Reality in Industrial Metrology. The applications have been designed as part of a database. The components have been modeled using ProEngineer, and the simulation has been programmed in VRML using Java scripts. The components can be manipulated using the keyboard and the mouse. The introduction of these virtual instruments in educational activities will lead to a higher level of qualification of the students offering them possibility to use and study these virtual instruments.
Adam Woźniak, Marek Dobosz
Feasibilities of one- and twostage CMM triggering probes.
Summary: The degree of uncertainty in measurements carried out by Coordinate Measuring Machines depends on the machine itself, but one of the most frequent reasons for the appearance of errors lies in the probe system. In most cases, coordinate machines are fitted with touch trigger probes. These probes generate a binary signal when their tips are in contact with the surface being measured. The position of the probe during triggering is shifted from the position of en actual moment of its contact with workpiece surface. This displacement is called pretravel length or shortly pretravel. Because the CMM calibration procedures (using a master sphere of known radius) determine the effective stylus ball and the average pretravel, the most important parameter is the pretravel variation. Thus, the most significant source of error in touch trigger probes lies in the direction-dependent pretravel variation characteristics. In the paper we will show the full 3D characteristics of the pretravel length were measured on example pieces of various probes both with the one stage transducer and also the newer generation two stage probes with a piezo sensor.
The influence of temperature changes and effectiveness of their compensation in the investigations of CMM accuracy.
Testing of the CMM’s accuracy takes place in most cases under industrial conditions where the machines are installed both
in laboratories and in assembly rooms. The question arises what kind of accuracy can be obtained under these conditions,
specially when temperature compensation is not possible, or possible in the limited range.The author intends to present
the results of experimental studies on the influence of ambient temperature change on the results of CMM calibration process
during length measurements witch the use of plate standards. The results obtained without any compensation, with an analytical compensation and
with a compensation realized by the CMM software (UMESS) are given.
The results of experiments performed on CONTURA CMM (C.Zeiss) give some insight into influence of temperature perturbations on CMM calibration. They can also have a practical significations when CMM accuracy is tested under conditions where, ambient temperature changes or is different from reference temperature (20oC).
The results are analyzed with the use of M-factor and 2D deviations and are presented as graphs supplied by GUK-K software assigned for checking of CMM accuracies by plate standard.
Identification of the sensor position in measurement of form errors by the variation in radius method.
In roundness measurements by the variation in radius method (ISO 4291:1985), the
stylus of the pick-up should move along a straight line, which crosses the
axis of rotation. If above requirement is not met, some measurement errors
arise. This requirement is particularly important in case of examination of
small holes. The method, which will be presented, ensures finding of the
distance between the line of the stylus movement and the centre of rotation
by means of preliminary testing.
It will be shown that analysis of the signal obtained by measurement of a roundness standard purposely placed in an eccentric way in relation to the axis of rotation, makes it possible to find the exact value of distance between the real and correct position of the sensor. This value gives a base for error correction by means of hardware or software methods.
Tadeusz Nieszporek, Elżbieta Bednarek
Examination of gear wheel accuracy with the use of a universal scanning or a coordination machine.
Summary: In contrast to specialized measuring machines that are furnished with proper software, coordinate and scanning machine of a universal type require sometimes appropriate processing of measurement results by the user. On the example of examining the accuracy of the tooth profile of cylindrical gears, a possibility of using universal coordinate or scanning machine for this purpose has been considered.
Tadeusz Nieszporek, Andrzej Piotrowski
Remote processing of coordinate measurement data through the internet service.
Summary: Measurements with the use of coordinate measuring machines are becoming an indispensable element of every manufacturing process. Due to the multitude of applications of this equipment, there are machines available presently on the market, which offer various added services. Together with their machines, manufacturers offer auxiliary software of limited functionality. However, the high price and no possibility of remote operation of such software encourage users to create their own application that will enable them to influence the methodology of measurements, remotely order measurements, and even control a CMM (Coordinate Measuring Machine). A program created in the Java language meets the above criteria, allowing the measurement of a spherical surface in compliance with the requirements of the ISO 7206-2 standard of 1966.
Marek Dobosz, Eugeniusz Ratajczyk
Conceptions of CMM’s distance measurement inaccuracy testing by means of laser interferometer.
Summary: CMM distance measuring inaccuracy testing by means of a laser interferometer is based on the following idea. The gauging surface is moved along the slide. The interferometer measures displacements of the gauging artifact, while the CMM measures its respective positions. Two realization concepts of the proposed method are presented. The first one is based on probing plane, and measuring its displacement by means of the CMM and the interferometer simultaneously. In the second method the characteristic point of the moving artifact is localized by the CMM. In this case two possibilities are analyzed. In the first one case the center point of a ball acts as the localization point. In the second approach the interferometer cube corner vertex is localized. The case with moving ball is tested experimentally.
Tomasz Liśkiewicz, S. Fouvry,Thomas Mathia, Hassan Zahouani
Fretting wear kinetics by 3D surface morphology analysis applied to PVD TiN coatings.
Abstract: Different surface treatments have been investigated by the authors under fretting regime. To determinate the wear kinetics of tribo-system and indicate wear resistance of the superficial layer, the volume of the removed material should be estimated. This paper deals with progressive observations and measurements of surface morphology of worn coated surface by three-dimensional mapping. To this study only PVD TiN hard coating has been selected and tested against polycrystalline alumina smooth ball with 12.7mm radius and Ra = 0,02mm roughness. The series of fretting tests with reciprocating sliding 5Hz cyclic motion were carried out under 100N normal load at displacement amplitude of 100mm. Investigations were conducted with duration from 1k cycles up to 18k, when the coating was worn through and the wear process was affected by the appearance of substrate material in the interface. In the initial friction phase tests were realized every 1k cycles, which was followed by every 3k cycles tests for stabilized friction regime. Due to the significant impact of ambience conditions on fretting wear process, relative humidity was controlled and fixed at a constant value of 40% at 23°C temperature. The characteristic W-shape fretting wear scar, resulting from debris distribution within the sliding contact, is visualized by surface 3D morphology analysis. The wear kinetics of coating is expressed by volume of the removed matter in relation to selected surface roughness and waviness parameters. Progressive changes of morphological parameters are observed in the function of the number of applied fretting cycles. The impact of substrate reaching condition for wear kinetics evolution is analyzed. Finally the applicability of the investigated method to other bulk and coated materials subjected to wear process is discussed and analyzed. The perspectives of this new morphological approach are elucidated.
I. Hilerio, Thomas Mathia, Ch. Alepee
Wide range 3D measurements of the knee prosthesis surfaces applied in optimizing of abeasive manufacturing process.
Summary: The objective of this work is to show the evolution of topographical states of knee prosthesis during different phases of manufacturing process in order to reduce the time of machining. Since a tribological as well as medical point of view, the surfaces of a prosthesis should be very smooth. The 3D topographical analysis is used to understand the kinetics of different stages of manufacturing process.
The Analysis of Surface Topography Peak Parameters.
Summary: The paper examines the use of various differential formulae for calculation of profile peak curvature and peak identification. Surface topography summits were also analysed. After the analysis of computer generated surfaces, the real surfaces were taken into consideration.
Zenon Krzyżak, Paweł Pawlus
Change of piston skirt surface topography during engine operation.
Abstract: Piston skirt surface topographies after engine operating were analysed. Change of their parameters during zero-wear process was studied. The repeatability of profile parameters after turning was compared with that after engine operating. The minimum set of parameters describing worn piston skirt surface topography was proposed. Parameters recommended for monitoring zero-wear process were also described.
The determination of dependence between the diameter to circles and number of measuring-points in co-ordinate measuring technique.
Abstract: In the article, the results of the computer simulation of the measurement of circles in the dependence from the number of measuring points at established parameters have been introduced. It deals with the dependence between the diameter to circles and the number of measuring points, which warrants the obtaining of the highest accuracy. Foundations of the method had been verified in industrial conditions.
Andrzej Tyka, Andrzej Góralczyk
The attempt at location of measure errors sources of digital tachymetric systems applied in industrial check of geometrical quantity.
Summary: Digital tachymetric measure systems are commonly used in industrial check of geometrical quantity of large diameters machine elements. Own methodology of research and results of research of digital tachymetric measure system and its metrological characteristic are presented. Results that was obtain, make possible correct configuration of measure space, what allow limiting of measure errors.
Andrzej Tyka, Andrzej Góralczyk
Vibro-isolated base for profilometric measure system.
Summary: Recorded surface profile, may be deform by vibrations of measure systems. Limitations of disruption of vertical component of the profile, during a measure using stylus profilometer are discussed. Own solution of vibro-isolated base for profilometer, obtain results of research and conclusions has been presented.
Marcin Starczak, Władysław Jakubiec
The simplifications in coordinate measurements' strategy and their influence on measurement uncertainty
Summary: The catalogue of typical measuring tasks for coordinate measuring machines was presented. This catalogue covers different kind of features: external sizes, internal sizes, steps (dimensions), distances (dimensions) as well as for geometrical deviations. For each measurements task the optimal strategy from the point of view of accuracy was presented as well as the typical simplifications applied in practice. For each simplification the evaluation of the error of method as the component of measurement uncertainty was done.
Władysław Jakubiec, Marcin Starczak, Wojciech Płowucha
The influence of geometrical errors of measuring machines on the error of indication.
Summary: The software enabling the visualization of the influence of geometrical errors of coordinate measuring machines and the probe-head system on error of indication for length measurement for the coordinate measuring machine MicroXcel 765 was presented. The user can choose in dialogue the kind and parameters of geometrical errors of CMM. There are different models of errors available. The results are the diagrams of errors of indications obtained within the calibration by means of different gauges such as block gauges, step gauges, plate gauges and dismountable ball-bar gauges.
The determination of dependence between the CMMs software and the results of attestation performed with the ball plate standard.
Summary: In the article, the influence of the CMM’s measuring software on the attestation results has been discussed. The attestation had been performed with a ball-plate standard. The way of generating the error during measurement of the spherical element has been presented. The results of the measurement of the ball-standard with the Coordinate Measuring Machine KEMCO 600 in a chosen plane XY have been added. They present inaccuracy of the measuring space of the CMM.
Operacja konstruowanie w dokumentach ISO i oprogramowaniu pomiarowym PCDMIS CAD++
Summary: The concept of the construction operator defined and used in technical specification ISO/TS 17450 as well as in other documents of Technical Committee ISO/TC 213 is presented. The construction operator is used to build ideal feature(s) from other ideal features with constraints. It is stated that the construction operator belongs to the set of 6 operators (partition, extraction, filtration, association, collection, construction) that recently have been introduced by ISO/TC 213 in order to unique specification and interpretation of designer, manufacturing and metrology engineer requirements for coordinate measurements and computational algorithms. The variety of options of the module construct in the PC-DMIS CAD++ program that is implemented on coordinate measuring machines produced by Italian company DEA is analyzed. The module construct available in pull down submenu of the PC-DMIS CAD++ program allows a number of ways to construct 13 types of geometrical features and should be used when probing on required geometrical feature is not possible. The PC-DMIS CAD++ program makes possible creation of part measuring program based on CAD file with simulation of machine performance in the graphical user interface interactive window as well as construction of new features with their visualization on the screen. It was found that the module construct in the PC-DMIS CAD++ program effectively implements the concept of the construction operator defined in ISO/TS 17450.
Optical and Mechanical Coordinate Metrology for Production Requirements.
Obtaining and processing of CMM data from gear wheel measurements.
Summary: A non-contact, optical CMM with two translation axes and one rotation axis for measuring cylinder coordinates is introduced. It allows for considerably faster measurements than a conventional, tactile CMM. This enables in-process inspection of gear wheels, and other rather complex, axially symmetrical parts in both 2D and 3D. The traverse profile of a precision forget gear wheel, acquired with the new CMM, is used to exemplify the benefits. It is demonstrated, how sets of parameters are derived from the CMM data, in order to optimize subsequent production steps, such as pitch-grinding. Also, these sets of parameters can be used to establish control charts that enable the performance-based maintenance of individual forging tools, such as an entire forging die or single die inlets.
Czesław Łukianowicz, Tatiana Łukianowicz, Tadeusz Karpiński
Three-dimensional assessment of the surface roughness by stylus and interference methods.
Summary: In the paper the results of the comparative investigation fulfilled for the rough surfaces in three-dimensional space are presented. Two measure methods were apply during investigations of the surface topography: stylus profiling method and stepping-phase interference method. Results obtained by these techniques are compared. Some factors that generating of the measuring errors are brief discussed for both methods.
Computer aided programmes design for coordinate measuring machines (CMM).
Summary: Usually programming of the CMM in on-line mode is executed. In modern industrial production sometimes programming in off-line mode is required, particularly based on the measured object model. In the paper realized in CAD/CAM Laboratory in ATH Bielsko-Biala system CMMCAD was presented. Indirect language of CMM programming about name VML (Virtual Measuring Language) was introduced. Possibility of the measurements strategy planning in dependence from the measure space parameters of CMM was discussed.
Stanisław Adamczak, Adam Janusiewicz
Influence of the error of parallel displacement of an axis of workspiece on accuracy of measurements using the method on technological devices.
Summary: The rapid development of machine manufacturing technologies is related to higher and higher requirements concerning the quality of the final product. In consequence, monitoring systems with a higher accuracy are necessary. Most devices used today need adjusting to accurate measurements. While estimating errors of form, we find the devices for measuring roundness profiles extremely useful. If the non-reference methods are applied, it is quite convenient to measure an object on a production machine. This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the error of method for conventional measurement operations, its computer simulation and proposed method of compensation.
Stanisław Adamczak, Dariusz Janecki, Krzysztof Stępień
Experimental verification of the concept of reference cylindricity measurements.
Summary: Products with cylindrical surfaces are manufactured in many industries,(e.g. paper, chemical, steel, heating or shipping industry). It is required that regular estimations of cylindricity profiles be made during the manufacturing process. However, nowadays the possibilities of carrying out cylindricity measurements in industrial conditions are very limited. Therefore at the Kielce University of Technology concept of using so-called reference method for cylindricity measurements has been proposed. Proposed concept was the base for building up a model measuring stand for reference cylindricity measurements. The paper presents the concept of reference cylindricity measurements and results obtained during its experimental verification.
Leif Goldhahn, Hans-Gerhard Kretzschmar, Michael Kaiser
Development and application of multimedia quality control plans at Coordinate Measuring Machines.
Summary: The use of multimedia job descriptions has proved to be very worthwhile in the field of process planning. The user can be provided by a specifically presented multimedia work instruction through the combined use of graphic, video, sound and alphanumeric data.Multimedia quality control plans are newly developed and used in a pilot project in the field of coordinate measurement technique. Aims are saving of valuable preparation time as well as the reliable application of testing methods and measuring techniques. The shortening of the actual measuring time is possible in case of manual measurement procedures.
Albert Weckenmann, Peter Gall, Joerg Hoffmann
Inspection of holes in sheet metal using optical measuring systems.
Summary: Fringe projection is a fast, parallel and accurate method for the 3D measurement of surfaces especially suited for objects with small aspect ratios, such as sheet metal parts. Common functional features and thus subject of inspection of those objects, are holes with the parameters form and position. For their automatic inspection, a process chain is presented. First, principles of measuring systems based on fringe projection are introduced. Then, after a closer look to the measurement results of such systems, a method for the automatic extraction and inspection of holes in the work piece is explained. Finally experimental results using this method are shown.
Screw Compressor measurement program in PC DMIS CAD Software.
Summary: This presentation corresponds to the operators manual, prepared for the users which needs to measure screw compressors rotors with a PC DMIS CAD™ software used by DEA CMM’s and contains the description of the purpose, needed data, application interface, results formats as well the procedures of the measurement and alignments. Recalling the function SCRCOMP the program allows the control of the profile of a screw compressor rotors in both transversal and axial sections based on use of theoretical parameters of the rotor – Helix Pitch, Helix Direction and file with theoretical points in different formats.In real time, for every measured point is possible to see the measured coordinates and the three-dimensional error found in this point. Contemporarily in the graphic part of the window the deviations are visualized with a requested amplification. The results of the control can be written in a file, which can be used later for correction of the parameters of the machine tool. The format of this file can be customized according to specific customer requirements. Another possibility is a graphical output useful for quality control. The development of this program has been made thanks to and in collaboration with one of the most experienced Italian manufacturer of compressors screw and tools for its machining.
Selection of the coordinate measuring machine for the gear measurement.
Summary: For the gear measurement three main methods are applied: classical measurement with many specialized measuring tools, measurement with Coordinate Measuring Machine designes specially for the gear measurement, and measurement with conventional CMM aided with gear measuring software using scanning measurement. Most of CMMs used in Poland are equipped with contact point measuring probes based on switching (pulse) heads. The lack of the additional application enabling the gear measurement caused the works on the gear measuring software for CMMs with pulse heads. The software required complete metrological analysis of the inaccuracy appearing in the measuring process. The metrological analysis of the algorithms, software and methodology of gear measurement with CMM enabled to describe and to calculate all the measuring errors. As the result, the recommendations for selection of the CMM for the particular measuring task for gears manufactured in certain class of accuracy.
Michał Wieczorowski, Andrzej Cellary
Analiza wybranych filtrów cyfrowych w pomiarach topografii powierzchni.
Summary: Digital filters are a very important part of DSP. In fact, their extraordinary performance is one of the key reasons that DSP has become so popular. Filters have two uses: signal separation and signal restoration. Signal separation is needed when a signal has been contaminated with interference, noise, or other signals. Signal restoration is used when a signal has been distorted in some way. Analog (electronic) filters can be used for these same tasks; however, digital filters can achieve far superior results. In the paper implementation of some filters for topography analysis as well results obtained using them were discussed.
Michał Wieczorowski, Geoff Jackson
Pomiary małych elementów z tworzyw sztucznych przy zastosowaniu optycznej współrzędnościowej maszyny pomiarowej.
Summary: In technical applications small plastic elements are quite common. Their application is very diversified, from automotive industry – for sealings, switches, handles etc. through electrical elements like fuses up to medical industry where parts to be measured are syringes, stents and elements g human organs work. All these elements are very small and delicate what makes traditional CMM measurements not possible. In the paper application of optical CMM for analysis parts of that kind was presented. Optical CMM allows for fast 3D measurements including CNC and scanning. To this machine a touch trigger probe can be attached as an option, for measurements in place which optical system cannot reach.
Sładek Jerzy, Marek Kowalski, Andrzej Ryniewicz, Barbara Juras, Michał Muzyka-Żmudzki
Analiza możliwości wyznaczenia punktów referencyjnych przestrzeni pomiarowej w odniesieniu do Wielkogabarytowych Współrzędnościowych Maszyn Pomiarowych.
Summary: Koncepcja opisu dokładności WgWMP została oparta o wektorowy zapis błędu lokalizacji poszczególnych punktów w przestrzeni pomiarowej maszyny tworzących pole błędów. Identyfikacja tego pola dla dużych WMP jest utrudniona gdyż specjalne wzorce (otworowe lub kulowe) są niewystarczające (przeznaczone głównie dla małych WMP). Możliwym jest jednak wykorzystanie wyżej wymienionych wzorców pod warunkiem określenia powiązań metrologicznych pomiędzy poszczególnymi podobszarami przestrzeni pomiarowej maszyny.W niniejszym artykule dokonano analizy możliwości wyznaczenia pola błędów. Ponadto dokonano opisu charakteru i sposobu rozmieszczenia podobszarów oraz metody metrologicznej i technologicznej realizacji powiązań między tymi podobszarami przy wykorzystaniu m.in. wzorców płytowych, systemów interferometrii laserowej do pomiarów długości. Rozpatrzono także znaczenie systemów z głowicami uchylnymi dla wyznaczenia punktów referencyjnych.
Jerzy Sładek, Marcin Krawczyk, Piotr Biernat
Rozszerzony model błędów geometrycznych WMP i ich identyfikacja przy pomocy Laserowego Wzorca Stopniowego.
Summary: Coraz częstsze stosowanie kompensacji komputerowej błędów geometrycznych WMP powoduje potrzebę zdefiniowania takiego modelu, który byłby możliwy do zastosowania dla każdej maszyny współrzędnościowej. Wykazanie istnienia błędów elastycznych spowodowało, że dotychczas stosowany model błędów stał się niewystarczającym szczególnie wtedy gdy, dąży się do uzyskania lepszej dokładności pomiarowej przy mniejszej dokładności wykonania poszczególnych elementów konstrukcji WMP. Artykuł opisuje próbę stworzenia takiego modelu, który uwzględniałby szeroki zakres błędów w tym błędy elastyczne. Podjęto też próbę identyfikacji błędów WMP przy zastosowaniu Laserowego Wzorca Stopniowego celem ich korekcji.
Nowa metoda atestacji współrzędnościowej maszyny pomiarowej.
Summary: W artykule przedstawiono wstępne wyniki atestacji współrzędnościowej maszyny pomiarowej (WMP) wykonanej za pomocą prototypowego opto-elektronicznego urządzenia. Przedstawiono skrócony opis urządzenia i metody atestacji oraz fragment wstępnych wyników wyznaczania dokładności przestrzeni pomiarowej WMP.
Liana Hancu, Iancau Horatiu, Gheorghe Achimas, Daniela Paunescu
Consideration about elongation measurement for composite specimens under cryogenic conditions.
Summary: In the paper there is presented the methodology of determining the plasticity of some composites specimens through tensile tests. The equipment is presented both at room temperature and under cryogenic conditions. Particularities of the measurements under cryogenic conditions are specified.
Liana Hancu, Marius Bulgaru, Gheorghe Achimas, Daniela Paunescu
Specimen’s accuracy measurement for parts bended with elastic pads.
Summary: In the paper there is presented a bending technology by using an elastic die. The accuracy of the specimen is discussed and the punch stroke influence upon it, using different punch radii is presented. The bending angle and the elastic spring back are measured with a CMM ZEISS machine called ECLIPSE 550. A metallic die and two elastic pads are used for experiments. A lot of measurements are performed in order to validate the results by applying statistical methods.
P. Herbert Osanna, M. Numan Durakbasa
Evaluation and Virtual Realization of Non-Technical Structures Using by Co-ordinate Metrology.
Summary: The technological evolutions and developments at the beginning of the 21st century require new concepts also in universal and flexible application of co-ordinate measuring instruments or to be formed by various programme packages. Especially computer aided co-ordinate measurment technique can be applied to evaluate the shape of non-technical structures as there are human limbs or joints with high accuracy, as an universal application of the co-ordinate measurement technology to build a bridge between two opposite science areas and thus supports the advance and the development in both fields. A suitable application field seems to be prosthetics to carry out precise studies about the kinematics and geometry of joints and to find thus design rules in prosthetics and construction requirements for artificial limbs as substitutes for the movement apparatus. The extensive measurements of human parts and especially of hip joints carried out using co-ordinate metrology of free form surfaces can be the future standard method for a great variety of different and especially complex tasks for workpiece measurement. The results of various measurements and the evaluation of measuring data can help to provide the basis for the improvement and optimisation in biomedical technique in the future. By the described successful application of co-ordinate metrology for the solution of problems in non-technical structures also new challenges are put onto production measurement technology.
Zbigniew Ramotowski, Anna Kapińska-Kiszko, Mariusz Uściński
Udział Zakładu Długości i Kąta GUM w porównaniach międzynarodowych w zakresie pomiarów współrzędnościowych.
Wojciech Płowucha, Władysław Jakubiec
Procedures of freeform surfaces inspection.
Summary: Ways of specification of requirements for freeform surfaces are presented on examples. Factors influencing accuracy of freeform surfaces inspection are discussed. Typical data processing chain for performing freeform measurements on CMM’s is described.
Evaluation of uncertainty of measurement of freeform surfaces.
Summary: The paper presents methodology of evaluation of measurement uncertainty according to draft standard ISO 15530 in respect to freeform surfaces. Results of research measurements on freeform gauges were described. Simulation algorithm for evaluation of influence of actual form deviations and accuracy of establishing of workpiece coordinate system on uncertainty of measurement of freeform surfaces was proposed.
Władysław Jakubiec, Maciej Brylski
Testing of software for calculation the surface roughness parameters according to ISO 13565-3.
Summary: The software for calculation the roughness parameters of surface having stratified functional properties (according to ISO 13565-3) has been elaborated in Department of Manufacturing Technology and Automation of University of Bielsko-Biała. The input data are digitalized P profile obtained by means of profilometer Perthometer Concept. The data are stored in ASCII file. The filtration of the primary profile is done according to ISO 13565-1. The elaboration of measurement results uses the Gaussian probability net according to ISO 13565-3. The results are the values of Rpq, Rvq and Rmq parameters. The graphical representation for each stage of measurement results elaboration are also available. The elaborated software has already been used to investigate the repeatability of measurements above-mentioned surface roughness parameters. Moreover this software has been used in research of inner surfaces of diesel engines' sleeves. The calculation algorithms as well as numerical methods are discussed in paper. Moreover the special test datasets applied to validate the software are described.
M. Fouzi Bahbou
Surface characterisation in thermal spraying.
Fiat-GM Powertrain - new experiences.
News from Carl Zeiss
Possibilities of mesuring software from Carl Zeiss.
Examination of the accuracy of composite hobs on a ZEISS “ECLIPSE” coordinate measuring machine.
Summary: Verification operations performed on the components of a composite hob before its assembly include measurements of the hob body, racks and rings. The tightened execution tolerances on these parts, ranging in hobs from several to a dozen or so micrometers in magnitude, in order to be measured, require the use of coordination machines. The examination of hobs for accuracy after assembly requires the use of specialized machines which were substituted with coordinate machines in this study. The results of measurements, along with their analysis, are presented in a tabularized form.
Krzysztof Kiszka, Piotr Kruk
AutoFeatures module of CMM software PCDMIS CAD++
Summary: The concept of the AutoFeatures module introduced and used in software package PCDMIS CAD++ version 3.5 for coordinate measuring systems is presented. Auto Feature option available in pull down submenu of this software can be acknowledged as specific realization of extraction, construction and collection operations (defined in technical specification ISO/TS 17450 and found in other documents of Technical Committee ISO/TC 213). The automatic creation of various geometrical elements from sam-pled parts of real workpiece surfaces (or its virtual CAD model) allows to execute and simplify accep-ted strategy of many measuring tasks with measured points correction as well as error minimization. The AutoFeatures routines are especially designed for sheet metal/thin walled material verification.
Andreas Kosicki, Iwona Kuprowska, Paweł Lisiak
Usage of coordinative measurements in large-lot production of pistons.
Summary: The article describes the use of coordinative measurement techniques in the modern large-lot production of pistons for internal combustion engines. It is based on experiences gained in the production plant. There is presented the characteristic of measurements based on the production process and control of process. This article gives information concerning the measurement sizes as well as selection of the measurement devices which ensure the required quality level. It is totally based on quality standards used currently in the automotive industry .
Daniela PĂUNESCU, Liana HANCU, Mihaela SUCIU
Considerations concerning stress and strain measurements through photoelasticity analyses of the groove rollers for cotton ring frame drafting.
Summary: In the paper presents the specifically measurements needed in order to evidence how much the change of the groove profile influences stresses and strains on the teeth edge. Two groove models have been tested through the photoelastic method, the first model from a real situation, the second model with the optimization profile. The optimised groove profile has been generated before, through finite element analysis.
Daniela PĂUNESCU, Liana HANCU, Mihaela SUCIU
Measurements and statistical study of the groove’s profile for cotton ring frame drafting.
Summary: The paper presents the influence of the groove roller from ring frame drafting upon the quality of the yarn. The profile for the groove roller was measured and the particularities are presented. A hypothesis that is to be verified is that the stress and strains of the groove roller affects the yarn. With the help of modeling with finite elements, this work has the role to determine through a Taguchi plan of experiment which is the profile that has a minimum influence on the yarn quality in order to verify the measurements that were performed.
N. Zenine, S. Wengler, L. Wisweh
Polygon connections - manufacture and measurement.
Summary: The paper presents the problematic of measurements and manufacturing of polygonal shafts and holes.